Read about the people and machines that transformed Western society in the 18th and 19th centuries. Building models of what might be Ever since the first prehistoric stone tools, humans have lived in a world shaped by invention. Indeed, the brain appears to be a natural inventor. As part of the act of perception, humans assemble, arrange, and manipulate incoming sensory information so as to build a dynamic , constantly updated model of the outside world. The survival value of such a model lies in the fact that it functions as a template against which to match new experiences, so as to rapidly identify anything anomalous that might be life-threatening. Such a model would also make it possible to predict danger. The predictive act would involve the construction of hypothetical models of the way the world might be at some future point. Such models could include elements that might, for whatever reason, be assembled into novel submodels inventive ideas.
BlockedUnblock FollowFollowing Delivering interesting stories, top-notch research and outstanding public service to California and the world. Learn more at www. Would you let an economist set you up on a date? Economics is often associated with the idea of money. But the field extends beyond what can be or should be monetized. In the s, researchers David Gale and Lloyd Shapley embarked upon research to take up an unlikely subject:
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It’s also become a fixture of pop culture—so much so that even people who haven’t read it know or think they know the story: An ambitious young scientist named Victor Frankenstein creates a grotesque but vaguely human creature from the spare parts of corpses, but he loses control of his creation, and chaos ensues. It’s a wildly inventive tale, one that flowed from an exceptional young woman’s imagination and, at the same time, reflected the anxieties over new ideas and new scientific knowledge that were about to transform the very fabric of life in the 19th century.
The woman we remember as Mary Shelley was born Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, the daughter of political philosopher William Godwin and philosopher and feminist Mary Wollstonecraft who tragically died shortly after Mary’s birth. Hers was a hyper-literate household attuned to the latest scientific quests, and her parents Godwin soon remarried hosted many intellectual visitors. One was a scientist and inventor named William Nicholson, who wrote extensively on chemistry and on the scientific method.
10 Great Ancient Chinese Inventions
In tombs M21 and M fragments of woollen trousers were discovered which have been radiocarbon dated to the time interval between the 13th and the 10th century BC. Their age corresponds to the spread of mobile pastoralism in eastern Central Asia and predates the widely known Scythian finds. Using methods of fashion design, the cut of both trousers was studied in detail.
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The first known traffic signal appeared in London in near the Houses of Parliament. Designed by JP Knight, it featured two semaphore arms and two gas lamps. The earliest electric traffic lights include Lester Wire’s two-color version set up in Salt Lake City circa , James Hoge’s system US patent 1, , installed in Cleveland by the American Traffic Signal Company in , and William Potts’ 4-way red-yellow-green lights introduced in Detroit beginning in New York City traffic towers began flashing three-color signals also in Garrett Morgan’s cross-shaped, crank-operated semaphore was not among the first half-hundred patented traffic signals, nor was it “automatic” as is sometimes claimed, nor did it play any part in the evolution of the modern traffic light.
Gas Mask Garrett Morgan in ? The invention of the gas mask predates Morgan’s breathing device by several decades. Early versions were constructed by the Scottish chemist John Stenhouse in and the physicist John Tyndall in the s, among many other inventors prior to World War I. Peanut Butter George Washington Carver who began his peanut research in ? Peanuts, which are native to the New World tropics, were mashed into paste by Aztecs hundreds of years ago.
Evidence of modern peanut butter comes from US patent issued to Marcellus Gilmore Edson of Montreal, Quebec in , for a process of milling roasted peanuts between heated surfaces until the peanuts reached “a fluid or semi-fluid state. Louis, manufactured peanut butter and sold it out of barrels. Kellogg, of cereal fame, secured US patent in for his “Process of Preparing Nutmeal,” which produced a “pasty adhesive substance” that Kellogg called “nut-butter.
Inspired by my discussion with Mr. Uhlmann, I put together five essential issues that can be helpful in intercultural professional relationships. Time Isn’t Money Everywhere If you are from United States, Germany or Scandinavia, remember that being right on time is a virtue only for you and a few other cultures.
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Does it require more or less effort to push a loaded wheelbarrow over hard level ground than to turn around and pull it? What about when the ground is soft? Surely the clear lens would let the light through rather than casting a shadow? At constant velocity, is this a real effect? If so, wouldn’t it be felt on any “moving” surface you walk on, such as a train or plane — or even Earth? Continued 31 January Pollution resolution If I replace my old diesel car with a less polluting new petrol one, how long will it take for the reduced pollution of the new car to outweigh the increased pollution caused by the manufacture of the new car and the disposal of the old, assuming average usage?
It seems such a waste of energy.
46c. The Invention of the Teenager
Such is the power of a market for judgment. A market for judgment is a nexus between science and technology. By science, I mean the kind of knowledge that is produced in academic institutions and research labs. By technology, I mean the commercial application of that knowledge. A market for judgment is a place, like CDL, where the producers of knowledge meet and mingle with businesspeople and investors. Markets for judgment are necessary and valuable because science and technology are mismatched in several ways.
A wind tunnel, however, was the main focus of Maxim’s experimental work, and he built it in heroic dimensions. It was 12 feet long, with a test section 3 feet square. Twin coaxial fans mounted upstream and driven by a steam engine blew air into the test section at 50 miles per hour.
A replica of the Phaistos Disc Seals and stamps may have been precursors to movable type. The uneven spacing of the impressions on brick stamps found in the Mesopotamian cities of Uruk and Larsa , dating from the 2nd millennium BC , has been conjectured by some archaeologists as evidence that the stamps were made using movable type. A few authors even view the disc as technically meeting all definitional criteria to represent an early incidence of movable-type printing.
Woodblock printing The intricate frontispiece of the Diamond Sutra from Tang Dynasty China, an early woodblock-printed book, AD British Museum Following the invention of paper in the 2nd century AD during the Chinese Han Dynasty , writing materials became more portable and economical than the bones, shells, bamboo slips, metal or stone tablets, silk, etc. Yet copying books by hand was still labour-consuming. It was soon used for printing designs on fabrics, and later for printing texts.
Woodblock printing , invented by about the 8th century during the Tang Dynasty , worked as follows. First, the neat hand-copied script was stuck on a relatively thick and smooth board, with the front of the paper, which was so thin that it was nearly transparent, sticking to the board, and characters showing in reverse, but distinctly, so that every stroke could be easily recognized. Then carvers cut away the parts of the board that were not part of the character, so that the characters were cut in relief, completely differently from those cut intaglio.
When printing, the bulging characters would have some ink spread on them and be covered by paper. With workers’ hands moving on the back of paper gently, characters would be printed on the paper.
How to Create a Invention
His object was to demonstrate a theory postulating a medium filling all space, called the ether, which was structureless, of inconceivable tenuity and yet solid and possessed of rigidity incomparably greater than that of the hardest steel. He obtained certain results and the whole world acclaimed them as an experimental verification of that cherished theory. But in reality what he observed tended to prove just its fallacy.
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Primarily a cosmetic issue. The indexing “clicks” were built into the derailer, not the lever. The positron system didn’t have a return spring; some models used a double cable to pull the derailer back and forth; other models used a single, semi-rigid push-pull cable. Positron was a valuable learning experience for Shimano. Their original theory was that experienced cyclists already knew how to shift, but that beginners could benefit from a system that didn’t require fine-tuning of the shift lever position.
For this reason, Positron was offered on entry-level bikes, often department-store models. This marketing theory turned out to be unworkable. The parts had to be made very cheaply to meet the price points required. This caused less-than-impressive performance. In addition, the fact that Positron was only supplied on bottom-end bikes caused it to acquire a poor connontation, as something to be outgrown, and not to be considered by a “serious cyclists.
Cyclists were initially dubious about this feature, but it worked so well that most resistance was overcome. Once the pros started using it, this now-glamorous feature rapidly trickled down to the hoi polloi. The result was Shimano’s complete domination of the bicycle parts market, much as Microsoft dominates the computer software market.
By it had become almost impossible to sell a bike that didn’t have indexed shifting.
History of cars
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The invention of the acoustic transducer and efficient acoustic projectors made more advanced forms of Sonar possible. Sonar – SO und, NA vigation and R anging The word Sonar is an American term first used in World War II, it is an acronym for SOund, NAvigation and Ranging.
Speed-dating as an invaluable tool for studying romantic attraction: A methodological primer by Eli J. Eastwick, Jacob Matthews , ” Research on initial romantic attraction flourished in the s and s but has now been partially eclipsed by research on close relationships. Speed-dating procedures also allow for strong tests of many fundamental attraction-related hypotheses and, via longitudinal follow-ups, could unify the fields of initial romantic attraction and close relationships.
This article will help investigators conduct speed-dating studies by addressing the methodological and logistical issues they will face and by illustrating procedures with a description of the Northwestern Speed-Dating Study. Show Context Citation Context Scholars and lay theorists might assume that individuals cannot learn anything substantive about another person in only 4 minutes, but this assumption conflicts strongly with a the robust lite E C T by unknown authors “